Business Hours:Mon-Fri 8 AM to 5 PMPhone: (403) 782-1586 | Toll-free: 1 (877) 899-5988

Internal Corrosion


INTERNAL CORROSION

Mechanical Techniques


Mechanical techniques for internal corrosion measurement and evaluation can be termed as Direct Intrusive Measurement. These techniques determine metal loss by direct measurement of changes in the physical properties of exposed test specimens. They are deemed as mechanical techniques based on the application methodology. This is an applicable technique for a Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) within an overall Integrity Management Plan (IMP) of mechanical erosion monitoring.


Weight-Loss Corrosion Coupons


Corrosion coupons are small test specimens that are exposed for a fixed period within a process environment. At the end of the fixed period, the corrosion coupon is removed from the process environment and analyzed for time averaged General Corrosion Rate, Pitting Corrosion Rate, sessile bacteria, and solids if required. Of importance with corrosion coupon monitoring is the placement within the process and within the infrastructure to provide representative results. Corrosion coupons provide an economical approach to internal corrosion monitoring and material evaluations. Rysco Corrosion Services are available to provide equipment sales, manufacturing, data interpretation, lab analysis, and field services in support of weight-loss corrosion coupons.


Mechanical Erosion Monitoring


Erosion monitoring is common on equipment and infrastructure that may be subject to metal loss due to flow conditions and any particulate that may exist within the flow. Common erosional monitoring equipment has a known wall thickness, that when fails provides a transfer of pressure to a gauge or other instrumentation. This is a useful notification of erosion. Rysco Corrosion Services are available to provide equipment sales, manufacturing, data interpretation, lab analysis, and field services in support of mechanical erosion monitoring.



INTERNAL CORROSION

Electronic Techniques


Electronic techniques for internal corrosion measurement and evaluation can be termed as either Physical Direct Intrusive Measurement (ER) or as Electrochemical Direct Intrusive Measurement (LPR and Galvanic). Electrochemical techniques measure the propensity of metals ions of an alloy to pass into solution in the electrolyte, and are thus intended for use immersed in an electrolyte. These are applicable techniques for a Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) within an overall Integrity Management Plan (IMP).


Electrical Resistance (ER)


Considered as a direct intrusive measurement, the electrical resistance technique utilizes the electrical resistance of a measuring element. As the measuring element loses mass due to corrosion or erosion of the environment, the electrical resistance of the measuring element changes. Comparison to an unexposed reference element provides a metal loss value. Comparison of values over short periods of time provides real time values. Rysco Corrosion Services are available to provide equipment sales, manufacturing, data interpretation, and field services in support of electrical resistance probes.


Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)


The basic technique of linear polarization resistance determines the corrosion rate of an electrode in an electrolyte. The propensity of the metal ions of the electrode (cations) to pass into solution, or corrode, is inferred from the ratio between a small change in applied potential around the open-circuit potential of the electrode and the corresponding change in the current density. Rysco Corrosion Services are available to provide equipment sales, data interpretation, and field services in support of linear polarization resistance probes.


Galvanic (ZRA)


Like the LPR technique, galvanic measurements utilizing a Zero Resistance Ammeter are an examination of the corrosion rate of an electrode in an electrolyte. However, in this instance dissimilar metals are used between comparable elements. The differences in the electrochemical behavior of the two electrodes in the process stream give rise to differences in the redox potential of the two electrodes. This technique is commonly used to monitor low levels of dissolved oxygen. Rysco Corrosion Services are available to provide equipment sales, data interpretation, and field services in support of galvanic probes .



INTERNAL CORROSION

Solids/Liquids Sampling


In addition to process environment characterization, sample collection and analysis of solids and liquids in process environments can provide evidence of corrosion mechanisms. Techniques for solids and liquids analysis can be termed as a combination of Indirect Online Measurement and Indirect Offline Measurement. These are applicable techniques for a Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) within an overall Integrity Management Plan (IMP). Rysco Corrosion Services are available to accurately sample, complete analysis, and provide data interpretation on the following supporting methods.



XRD (Solids)


X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis or XRPD analysis) is a unique method in determination of crystallinity of a compound. XRD is primarily used for:

  • ID of crystalline material (used for regulatory purposes or during development).
  • ID of different polymorphic forms (“fingerprints”).
  • Distinguishing between amorphous and crystalline material.
  • Quantification of the percent crystallinity of a sample.




CHNS (Solids)



The CHNS mode for elemental analyzers determines total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur simultaneously from 0.1% (0.05% for sulphur) to high percentage levels. It is ideal for the analysis of most sulphur compounds and is widely used in the analysis of soils, sludges, and plant material.


FTIR (Solids and Liquids)



FTIR stands for Fourier transform infrared, the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. When IR radiation is passed through a sample, some radiation is absorbed by the sample and some passes through (is transmitted). The resulting signal at the detector is a spectrum representing a molecular ‘fingerprint’ of the sample. The usefulness of infrared spectroscopy arises because different chemical structures (molecules) produce different spectral fingerprints.

So, what is FTIR?

  • The Fourier Transform converts the detector output to an interpretable spectrum.
  • The FTIR generates spectra with patterns that provide structural insights.


ICP-OES (Solids)


ICP-OES is a trace-level, elemental analysis technique that uses the emission spectra of a sample to identify and quantify the elements present. Samples are introduced into the plasma in a process that desolvates, ionizes, and excites them. The constituent elements can be identified by their characteristic emission lines, and quantified by the intensity of the same lines.

  • High sample throughput enabling the efficient analysis of large batches.
  • Simultaneous determination of multiple elements in each sample.

Full Water Analysis (Liquids)


Water, as an electrolyte, is an intrinsic part of any corrosion cell. It is well known that the chemistry of an electrolyte has a profound influence on the rates of corrosion, and the corrosion mechanisms that may take place. Rysco Corrosion Services performs onsite measurements at the time of sampling (pH, temperature, and dissolved gases) to ensure the accuracy of the water chemistry results. Results include total alkalinity, bicarbonate and carbonate, chloride and sulphate, pH and specific gravity, barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, strontium, iron and manganese. Calculations are performed for ion balance and total dissolved solids.



Fe/Mn Concentrations (Liquids)


Analysis of dissolved iron and manganese concentrations in process liquids can be used as a technique for determination of corrosion occurrence, by examining the concentration of corrosion by-products in solution within the process stream.





Scaling Tendencies (Liquids)


Water, as an electrolyte, is an intrinsic part of any corrosion cell. It is well known that the chemistry of an electrolyte has a profound influence on the rates of corrosion, and the corrosion mechanisms that may take place. Rysco Corrosion Services performs onsite measurements at the time of sampling (pH, temperature, and dissolved gases) to ensure the accuracy of the water chemistry results. Results include total alkalinity, bicarbonate and carbonate, chloride, bromide and iodide, sulphate, pH and specific gravity, boron, barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, strontium, iron and manganese. Calculations are performed for ion balance, total dissolved solids, and scaling indices, and the report includes a scaling tendencies plot.



INTERNAL CORROSION

Bacterial Sampling


Considered an Indirect Offline Measurement Technique, analysis for Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) can be a suitable method for this specific corrosion mechanism. Various techniques exist for microbiological determination. Rysco Corrosion Services employs the following methods utilizing techniques for both Sessile and Planktonic samples for SRB, APB, IRB, and HAB. Rysco Corrosion Services are available to accurately sample, complete analysis, and provide data interpretation on the following supporting methods.


Serial Enumeration via Dilution


Perhaps the most common and widely accepted method for bacterial determination. This technique involves bacterial culturing from the sample to determine the concentration of viable bacteria. Successive dilutions of the sample are put into the culture media and left to grow. The samples that develop give an indication of the original concentration of bacteria. The test can show some results in a few days, but the usual incubation period for the test is 14 to 28 days.


ATP


Adenosine Triphosphate Photometry (ATP) is a measurement method that examines the ATP present in all living cells, but which disappears rapidly on death. ATP can be measured using an enzymic reaction, which generates flashes of light that are detected by a photomultiplier. This method commonly reports as a mass of total bacteria per mass of sample.



BART


A Biological Activity Reaction Test (BART)™ is a water testing system for bacterial populations that utilizes time to reaction, color change indications, solids precipitation, and the generation of gases to classify bacteria along with population size.



CANADA

Headquarters

5647 Wolf Creek Drive
Lacombe, Alberta, T4L 2H8

info@ryscocorrosion.com

LOCATIONS

Canada | USA | United Arab Emirates



INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS

Canada: +1 (877) 899-5988USA: + 1 (877) 899-5988UAE: +1 (877) 899-5988


GET IN TOUCH

Follow Us on Social Media